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MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian

Quick assistance with citing your sources for a research paper

Direct Quotations & Paraphrasing

*MLA 8th edition did not change the format of in-text citations. Same guidelines from 7th edition apply.

In-Text Citations

After a quote, add the author's last name and a page reference. This is usually enough to identify the source and the specific location from which you borrowed the material.

Example: "The winnowing away of face-to-face communication in the digital age may be having an effect on the ability of kids to interact in person" (Sales 135). 

If using the author's name in your text, do not include it in the parentheses.

ExampleNancy Joe Sales has found research showing "the winnowing away of face-to-face communication in the digital age may be having an effect on the ability of kids to interact in person" (135). 

If you use more than one work by the same author, include the title or a shorted form of the title.

Example: "One of her eyes looks away, the other is as straight and unwavering as a she-wolf's" (Morrison, A Mercy).

If more than one author has the same last name, add their first initial.

Example: "Institutional neglect of racism and injustice is the exercise of power, the kind of power that refuses to notice and refuses to speak" (J. Chang 36).

If two or more authors wrote the work, list them all.

Example: "Bullying, we have shown, arises out of power inequality" (Derber and Magrass 84).

If citing a multi-volume work, include the volume number before the page numbers.

Example: "Following the French Revolution in 1789, London cordwainers popularized spurred boots" (Snodgrass 1: 79).

If no pagination information is available, but paragraphs are numbered, include that information.

Example: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog" (Seuss par. 5).

If no pagination information is available and paragraphs are not numbered, the work must be cited only in its entirety, but you can include words in your text that indicate about where to find the quote.

Example: In the first third of his article, Seuss mentioned that "the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog."

Note: When paraphrasing or mentioning another work, it is helpful to still provide pagination information if the source text is long or difficult, or if it would help the reader find the text being paraphrased.